Cincinnati is a major commercial and industrial center of the Midwest. It has many nationally leading industries. It leads the nation in playing card, machine tool, and soap production. The location of the city of Cincinnati is on the southwest corner of the state and lies on the Ohio River. Cincinnati was once called the "Queen City of the West." The original name of Cincinnati was "Losantiville." It was given this name in 1788 by settlers. The name was changed to Cincinnati by General Arthur St. Clair, the first governor of the Northwest Territory. The main reason that Cincinnati became such a giant in the 1800's was because of river trade. Steamboats transported the various items to be traded, up and the down river. After the railroad became the primary way to trade goods, Cincinnati lost its trading power and had to rely on manufacturing as its primary economy. Cincinnati lies on the north side of the Ohio River. There are two tributaries to the Ohio River in Cincinnati. Their names are the Great Miami and the Little Miami. The area of Cincinnati covers 79 square miles. This area is about one fifth of Hamilton County. The Metropolitan area covers 2,169 square miles and occupies portions of land in Hamilton, Clermont, and Warren counties in the state of Ohio. It also occupies land in part of Kentucky and Indiana. The city lies on a flat plain called the "basin." The basin starts on the Ohio River and extends into the city. The basin area is home to the business district, some manufacturing and residential areas. There are hills that surround the basin on three sides. The downtown area centers on Fountain Square Plaza. This square lies between Vine and Walnut streets. The tallest building in Cincinnati is the Carew Tower. The building has 48 stories and is west of the square. The heart of the financial district lies on fourth street, south of the square. There is a convention center west of the financial district and it was expanded in 1986. When this center was expanded it doubled the meeting rooms and exposition space. The expanded building was named Albert B. Sabin Cincinnati Convention Center, in honor of the man who developed the oral polio vaccine in the 1950's. United States President William Howard Taft was born on the north side of the business district. The hillsides surrounding the basin is occupied by residential areas. There are several suburbs of Cincinnati which include, Madeira, Norwood, and Saint Bernard. The people living in Cincinnati are 97% American born. African-Americans make up about 34% of the cityThere are about 2,000 manufacturers in the Cincinnati area. These manufacturers employ about 165,000 workers and produce about 7.5 billion dollars in goods. Cincinnati has been recognized nationally as a chief producer of soap, playing cards, and machine tools. Other industries that keep Cincinnati in the black are, automobile and automobile part production, chemicals, jet engines, and pianos. About one-third of the Cincinnati work force are employed in factories. The river port in Cincinnati deals with about 16 million short tons of cargo yearly. Most of this 16 million tons is bituminous coal. Cincinnati is a link between the south and the north-central states of Ohio. The city is served by a railroad system for people and cargo. There are many major highways, including 3 interstate highways, passing through Cincinnati. There are many commercial airlines that serve the Greater Cincinnati International Airport. This airport lies 10 miles outside Cincinnati in Boone County, Kentucky. Cincinnati owns an airport named Lunken Airport that is located on the Southeastern edge of the city. This one airport is witness to around 200,000 take-offs and landings per year. The city is serviced by two steamboats, the Delta Queen and the Mississippi Queen. These two vessels serve the river ports along the Ohio River and the Mississippi. Cincinnati has two newspapers, the Enquirer and the Post and each are published daily. As of 1988 the city of Cincinnati had 6 television stations and 30 radio stations. The public education system in Cincinnati is good. They have over 100 primary and secondary education facilities. These facilities are home to about 52,000 students. Fifty two percent of these students are of African-American decent. There are four major universities in the Cincinnati area. Cincinnati has a council manager form of government. The nine member council elects the chief administrative officer. Among the members of the council, a mayor is selected. Council members serve a term of two years.
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